https://www.realcty.org/api.php?action=feedcontributions&user=Burturt&feedformat=atomRealCTY - User contributions [en]2021-04-20T16:20:36ZUser contributionsMediaWiki 1.34.1https://www.realcty.org/index.php?title=Courses&diff=51457Courses2019-08-02T21:27:59Z<p>Burturt: /* Defunct Courses */ and remove cod2 from defunct</p>
<hr />
<div>CTY offers a wide range of courses. The following list has been compiled from the course descriptions listed in CTY's [http://cty.jhu.edu/summer/catalogs/os/oscatalog.html Summer Programs Catalog]:<br />
<!-- Before posting any "????" or any courses you aren't sure about, try longing in to MyCTY as an alum (you can do this even if you are still in CTY courses) then at the top select the "Alumni Directory". There the "Course Taken" drop down will show almost all the course names and codes CTY has ever had--><br />
<br />
=CTY Courses=<br />
<br />
==Humanities Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Linguistics]]: LNCS<br />
* [[Logic: Principles of Reasoning]]: LOGC<br />
* [[Exploring Ethics]]: ETHC<br />
* [[Existentialism]]: EXIT<br />
* [[Philosophy of Mind]]: MIND<br />
* [[Law and Politics in US History]]: LAWP<br />
* [[International Politics]]: POLY<br />
* [[Cognitive Psychology]]: COGN<br />
* [[Newton, Darwin, and Einstein]]: NEDE<br />
* [[Dissent]]: DSET<br />
* [[Taking Action: Leadership and Service]]: SERV<br />
<br />
==Writing Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Writing Your World]]: WRT3<br />
* [[Fiction and Poetry]] : INCW<br />
* [[Utopias and Dystopias]]: TOPI<br />
* [[Advanced Fiction]]: FICT<br />
<br />
==Math Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Individually Paced Mathematics Sequence]]: MATH<br />
* [[Cryptology]]: CODE<br />
* [[Advanced Cryptology]]: COD2<br />
* [[Probability and Game Theory]]: GAME<br />
* [[Mathematical Logic]]: REAS<br />
* [[Number Theory]]: THEO<br />
* [[Fundamentals of Microeconomics]] : MICO<br />
* [[Macroeconomics and the Global Economy]] : MACR<br />
* [[Topology]]: TOPO<br />
<br />
==Computer Science Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Fundamentals of Computer Science]]: FCPS<br />
* [[Data Structures and Algorithms]]: DATA<br />
* [[Theory of Computation]]: TCOM<br />
<br />
==Science Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Introduction to Biomedical Sciences]]: INBS<br />
* [[Paleobiology]]: PBIO<br />
* [[Fast Paced High School Biology]]: BIOL<br />
* [[Neuroscience]]: NEUR<br />
* [[Genetics]]: GENE<br />
* [[Fast Paced High School Chemistry]]: CHEM<br />
* [[Electrical Engineering]]: EENG<br />
* [[Fast Paced High School Physics]]: PHYW<br />
* [[Investigations in Engineering]]: IENG<br />
* [[Astrophysics]] : ASTR<br />
* [[Advanced Topics in Physics: Special Relativity]]: SREL<br />
* [[Intro to Organic Chemistry]] :INOC<br />
<br />
== Defunct Courses ==<br />
<br />
Not every course lasts forever. If the course you took long ago is not listed above, it might have undergone a name change, or it might have been phased out. Here are some of the courses that are no longer offered:<br />
<br />
* [[Great Revolutions]]: HIST <br />
* [[Modern European History]]: EUHI<br />
* [[Women and US Social Reform]]: AWOM<br />
* [[American Studies: The Harlem Renaissance]]: HREN<br />
* [[Gandhi's India]]: GAND<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Shakespeare]]: WR4C<br />
* [[The Crafting of Poetry]]: POET<br />
* [[The Crafting of Drama]]: PLAY<br />
* [[Calculus]]: CALC<br />
* [[Theoretical Foundations of Computer Science]]: CPS1<br />
* [[Digital Logic]]: DIGI<br />
* [[Introduction to Laboratory Sciences]]: ISCI<br />
* [[Selected Topics in Advanced Biology]]: ABIO<br />
* [[Selected Topics in Advanced Chemistry]]: ACHM<br />
* [[Scientific Investigations: St. Mary's River]]: RIVR<br />
* [[The Life Cycle of an Island: Hawaii]]: LCIS<br />
* [[Intermediate Ancient Greek]]: GRK2<br />
* [[Twentieth Century Art]]: TWEN<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Science Fiction]]: WR4D<br />
* [[Mathematical Modeling]]: MODL (changed to CAA)<br />
* [[Advanced Mathematical Modeling]]: AMOD<br />
* [[Archaeology]]: ARCH<br />
* [[Memoirs of War]]: MWAR<br />
* [[Statistics]]: STAT<br />
* [[Geography]]: GEOG<br />
* [[Readings in Western Culture]]: WEST<br />
* [[Mathematical Reasoning]]: MARS<br />
* [[Writing and Imagination]]: WRIT (Moved to Baby CTY)<br />
* [[Civil War Studies]]: CIVS<br />
* [[Mathematical Problem Solving]]: MPSE<br />
* [[Russian History]]: RUHI<br />
* [[History of Western Art]]: HART<br />
* [[Music Theory]]: MUST<br />
* [[Islam]]: ISLM<br />
* [[American Studies: The Sixties]]: AMST<br />
* [[Politics in the Middle East]]: PLME<br />
* [[The Asian Pacific Rim]]: PRIM<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Film]]: WR4E<br />
* [[Set Theory]]: SETM<br />
* [[The Chesapeake Bay Oyster]] : OYST<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Literature and the Arts]]: WR4A<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Popular Culture]]: WR4B<br />
* [[Shakespeare in Performance]]: SHEP<br />
* [[Beginning Ancient Greek]]: GRK1<br />
* [[Genomics]]: GNIC<br />
* [[Latin I]]: LAT1<br />
* [[Wicked Art: Pictures, Pixels, and Pens]]: WART<br />
* [[The Digital Revolution: Writing and Social Media]]: DIGR<br />
* [[The History of Disease]]: HDIS<br />
* [[Goodwives and Witches: Women in Colonial America]]: GOOD<br />
* [[Freaks and Geeks in Popular Media]] : GEEK<br />
* [[Advanced Robotics]]: AROB<br />
<br />
=CTY CAA Courses=<br />
These courses are part of CTY's lower-level program, called Academic Exploration courses. These courses are mostly intro level courses and require lower scores to get into than CTY Intensive Studies. <br />
==Humanities Courses==<br />
* [[Introduction to Logic]] : ILOG<br />
* [[Philosophy]] : PHIL<br />
* [[Foundations of Psychology]] : PSYC<br />
* [[Great Cases: American Legal History]]: CASE<br />
* [[Bioethics]] : BIOE<br />
* [[Etymologies]] : ETML<br />
<br />
==Writing Courses==<br />
* [[Crafting the Essay]]: WRTG<br />
* [[Writing About Place: The Monterey Bay]] : WBAY<br />
* [[Whodunit? Mystery and Suspense in Literature and Film]] : WHOD<br />
* [[The Graphic Novel]] : GNOV<br />
<br />
==Mathematics Courses==<br />
* [[The Mathematics of Money]] : MONY<br />
* [[Mathematical Modeling]] : MATX<br />
* [[Geometry through Art]] : GART<br />
* [[Paradoxes and Infinities]] : PDOX<br />
* [[Discrete Math]] : DMAT<br />
* [[Game Theory and Economics]] : GMTH<br />
<br />
==Science and Engineering Courses==<br />
* [[Principles of Engineering Design]]: EGRD<br />
* [[Anatomy and Physiology]] : ANPY<br />
* [[Zoology]] : ANSC<br />
* [[Biotechnology]] : BIOT<br />
* [[Chemistry in Society]] : CHMS<br />
* [[The Physics of Sports]] : PHSP<br />
* [[Introduction to Astronomy]] : STAR<br />
* [[Whales and Estuary Systems]]: WHLS<br />
<br />
==Computer Science==<br />
* [[Foundations of Programming]] : CMPS<br />
<br />
=CTY Princeton Courses=<br />
<br />
* [[The Mathematics of Competitive Behavior]]: MOCB<br />
* [[Epidemiology, Re-emerging Infectious Diseases, and Pandemics]]: EPID<br />
* [[Science, Technology and Public Policy]]: SPUB<br />
* [[Global Politics: Human Rights and Justice]]: GPOL<br />
* [[Human Nature and Technology]]: HTEC<br />
* [[Politics in the Middle East]]: PSME<br />
* [[Politics and Film]]: POLF<br />
* [[Race and Politics]]: RPOL<br />
<br />
=CTY CLI=<br />
<br />
The Civic Leadership Institute course is offered at Johns Hopkins (session 1) and Berkeley (session 2).<br />
* [[Service, Leadership & Community Transformation]]<br />
<br />
=CTY HKU=<br />
<br />
This is the CTY program offered at Hong Kong University which is a combination of Intensive Studies and Academic Explorations.<br />
<br />
==Mathematics and Computer Science Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Cryptology]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
* [[Macroeconomics and the Global Economy]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
* [[Game Theory and Economics]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
* [[The Mathematics of Money]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
* [[Paradoxes and Infinities]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
* [[Mathematical Logic]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
<br />
==Science Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Fast Paced High School Chemistry]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
* [[Introduction to Biomedical Sciences]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
* [[Chemistry in Society]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
<br />
==Humanities Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Introduction to Logic]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
* [[Comparative Law]]<br />
* [[Engaged Buddhism]]<br />
<br />
==Writing Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Crafting the Essay]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
<br />
{{The Essential CTY}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Courses|*]]</div>Burturthttps://www.realcty.org/index.php?title=Courses&diff=51456Courses2019-08-02T21:19:39Z<p>Burturt: /* Math Courses */ add advanced crypto</p>
<hr />
<div>CTY offers a wide range of courses. The following list has been compiled from the course descriptions listed in CTY's [http://cty.jhu.edu/summer/catalogs/os/oscatalog.html Summer Programs Catalog]:<br />
<!-- Before posting any "????" or any courses you aren't sure about, try longing in to MyCTY as an alum (you can do this even if you are still in CTY courses) then at the top select the "Alumni Directory". There the "Course Taken" drop down will show almost all the course names and codes CTY has ever had--><br />
<br />
=CTY Courses=<br />
<br />
==Humanities Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Linguistics]]: LNCS<br />
* [[Logic: Principles of Reasoning]]: LOGC<br />
* [[Exploring Ethics]]: ETHC<br />
* [[Existentialism]]: EXIT<br />
* [[Philosophy of Mind]]: MIND<br />
* [[Law and Politics in US History]]: LAWP<br />
* [[International Politics]]: POLY<br />
* [[Cognitive Psychology]]: COGN<br />
* [[Newton, Darwin, and Einstein]]: NEDE<br />
* [[Dissent]]: DSET<br />
* [[Taking Action: Leadership and Service]]: SERV<br />
<br />
==Writing Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Writing Your World]]: WRT3<br />
* [[Fiction and Poetry]] : INCW<br />
* [[Utopias and Dystopias]]: TOPI<br />
* [[Advanced Fiction]]: FICT<br />
<br />
==Math Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Individually Paced Mathematics Sequence]]: MATH<br />
* [[Cryptology]]: CODE<br />
* [[Advanced Cryptology]]: COD2<br />
* [[Probability and Game Theory]]: GAME<br />
* [[Mathematical Logic]]: REAS<br />
* [[Number Theory]]: THEO<br />
* [[Fundamentals of Microeconomics]] : MICO<br />
* [[Macroeconomics and the Global Economy]] : MACR<br />
* [[Topology]]: TOPO<br />
<br />
==Computer Science Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Fundamentals of Computer Science]]: FCPS<br />
* [[Data Structures and Algorithms]]: DATA<br />
* [[Theory of Computation]]: TCOM<br />
<br />
==Science Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Introduction to Biomedical Sciences]]: INBS<br />
* [[Paleobiology]]: PBIO<br />
* [[Fast Paced High School Biology]]: BIOL<br />
* [[Neuroscience]]: NEUR<br />
* [[Genetics]]: GENE<br />
* [[Fast Paced High School Chemistry]]: CHEM<br />
* [[Electrical Engineering]]: EENG<br />
* [[Fast Paced High School Physics]]: PHYW<br />
* [[Investigations in Engineering]]: IENG<br />
* [[Astrophysics]] : ASTR<br />
* [[Advanced Topics in Physics: Special Relativity]]: SREL<br />
* [[Intro to Organic Chemistry]] :INOC<br />
<br />
== Defunct Courses ==<br />
<br />
Not every course lasts forever. If the course you took long ago is not listed above, it might have undergone a name change, or it might have been phased out. Here are some of the courses that are no longer offered:<br />
<br />
* [[Great Revolutions]]: HIST <br />
* [[Modern European History]]: EUHI<br />
* [[Women and US Social Reform]]: AWOM<br />
* [[American Studies: The Harlem Renaissance]]: HREN<br />
* [[Gandhi's India]]: GAND<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Shakespeare]]: WR4C<br />
* [[The Crafting of Poetry]]: POET<br />
* [[The Crafting of Drama]]: PLAY<br />
* [[Calculus]]: CALC<br />
* [[Theoretical Foundations of Computer Science]]: CPS1<br />
* [[Digital Logic]]: DIGI<br />
* [[Introduction to Laboratory Sciences]]: ISCI<br />
* [[Selected Topics in Advanced Biology]]: ABIO<br />
* [[Selected Topics in Advanced Chemistry]]: ACHM<br />
* [[Scientific Investigations: St. Mary's River]]: RIVR<br />
* [[The Life Cycle of an Island: Hawaii]]: LCIS<br />
* [[Intermediate Ancient Greek]]: GRK2<br />
* [[Twentieth Century Art]]: TWEN<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Science Fiction]]: WR4D<br />
* [[Mathematical Modeling]]: MODL (changed to CAA)<br />
* [[Advanced Mathematical Modeling]]: AMOD<br />
* [[Archaeology]]: ARCH<br />
* [[Memoirs of War]]: MWAR<br />
* [[Statistics]]: STAT<br />
* [[Geography]]: GEOG<br />
* [[Readings in Western Culture]]: WEST<br />
* [[Mathematical Reasoning]]: MARS<br />
* [[Writing and Imagination]]: WRIT (Moved to Baby CTY)<br />
* [[Civil War Studies]]: CIVS<br />
* [[Mathematical Problem Solving]]: MPSE<br />
* [[Russian History]]: RUHI<br />
* [[History of Western Art]]: HART<br />
* [[Music Theory]]: MUST<br />
* [[Islam]]: ISLM<br />
* [[American Studies: The Sixties]]: AMST<br />
* [[Politics in the Middle East]]: PLME<br />
* [[The Asian Pacific Rim]]: PRIM<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Film]]: WR4E<br />
* [[Set Theory]]: SETM<br />
* [[The Chesapeake Bay Oyster]] : OYST<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Literature and the Arts]]: WR4A<br />
* [[The Critical Essay: Popular Culture]]: WR4B<br />
* [[Shakespeare in Performance]]: SHEP<br />
* [[Beginning Ancient Greek]]: GRK1<br />
* [[Genomics]]: GNIC<br />
* [[Latin I]]: LAT1<br />
* [[Wicked Art: Pictures, Pixels, and Pens]]: WART<br />
* [[The Digital Revolution: Writing and Social Media]]: DIGR<br />
* [[Advanced Cryptology]]: COD2<br />
* [[The History of Disease]]: HDIS<br />
* [[Goodwives and Witches: Women in Colonial America]]: GOOD<br />
* [[Freaks and Geeks in Popular Media]] : GEEK<br />
* [[Advanced Robotics]]: AROB<br />
<br />
=CTY CAA Courses=<br />
These courses are part of CTY's lower-level program, called Academic Exploration courses. These courses are mostly intro level courses and require lower scores to get into than CTY Intensive Studies. <br />
==Humanities Courses==<br />
* [[Introduction to Logic]] : ILOG<br />
* [[Philosophy]] : PHIL<br />
* [[Foundations of Psychology]] : PSYC<br />
* [[Great Cases: American Legal History]]: CASE<br />
* [[Bioethics]] : BIOE<br />
* [[Etymologies]] : ETML<br />
<br />
==Writing Courses==<br />
* [[Crafting the Essay]]: WRTG<br />
* [[Writing About Place: The Monterey Bay]] : WBAY<br />
* [[Whodunit? Mystery and Suspense in Literature and Film]] : WHOD<br />
* [[The Graphic Novel]] : GNOV<br />
<br />
==Mathematics Courses==<br />
* [[The Mathematics of Money]] : MONY<br />
* [[Mathematical Modeling]] : MATX<br />
* [[Geometry through Art]] : GART<br />
* [[Paradoxes and Infinities]] : PDOX<br />
* [[Discrete Math]] : DMAT<br />
* [[Game Theory and Economics]] : GMTH<br />
<br />
==Science and Engineering Courses==<br />
* [[Principles of Engineering Design]]: EGRD<br />
* [[Anatomy and Physiology]] : ANPY<br />
* [[Zoology]] : ANSC<br />
* [[Biotechnology]] : BIOT<br />
* [[Chemistry in Society]] : CHMS<br />
* [[The Physics of Sports]] : PHSP<br />
* [[Introduction to Astronomy]] : STAR<br />
* [[Whales and Estuary Systems]]: WHLS<br />
<br />
==Computer Science==<br />
* [[Foundations of Programming]] : CMPS<br />
<br />
=CTY Princeton Courses=<br />
<br />
* [[The Mathematics of Competitive Behavior]]: MOCB<br />
* [[Epidemiology, Re-emerging Infectious Diseases, and Pandemics]]: EPID<br />
* [[Science, Technology and Public Policy]]: SPUB<br />
* [[Global Politics: Human Rights and Justice]]: GPOL<br />
* [[Human Nature and Technology]]: HTEC<br />
* [[Politics in the Middle East]]: PSME<br />
* [[Politics and Film]]: POLF<br />
* [[Race and Politics]]: RPOL<br />
<br />
=CTY CLI=<br />
<br />
The Civic Leadership Institute course is offered at Johns Hopkins (session 1) and Berkeley (session 2).<br />
* [[Service, Leadership & Community Transformation]]<br />
<br />
=CTY HKU=<br />
<br />
This is the CTY program offered at Hong Kong University which is a combination of Intensive Studies and Academic Explorations.<br />
<br />
==Mathematics and Computer Science Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Cryptology]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
* [[Macroeconomics and the Global Economy]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
* [[Game Theory and Economics]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
* [[The Mathematics of Money]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
* [[Paradoxes and Infinities]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
* [[Mathematical Logic]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
<br />
==Science Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Fast Paced High School Chemistry]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
* [[Introduction to Biomedical Sciences]] (Intensive Studies)<br />
* [[Chemistry in Society]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
<br />
==Humanities Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Introduction to Logic]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
* [[Comparative Law]]<br />
* [[Engaged Buddhism]]<br />
<br />
==Writing Courses==<br />
<br />
* [[Crafting the Essay]] (Academic Explorations)<br />
<br />
{{The Essential CTY}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Courses|*]]</div>Burturthttps://www.realcty.org/index.php?title=Four_Square&diff=51098Four Square2019-07-24T05:06:07Z<p>Burturt: /* Nine Square */ add lmu reference</p>
<hr />
<div>[[Four Square]] is a game very commonly played at most CTY sites. It requires a Four Square ball (though a kickball, basketball, tennis ball, or even a soccer ball may suffice) and four squares drawn on the ground (though sidewalk tiles, if large enough, may suffice).<br />
<br />
==The Basics==<br />
<br />
Four Square is a game involving a ball, four squares arranged to form a larger square, and at least four players. Each square is recommended to be 6 to 8 feet in length. Each square has a name, as well as a rank. The name and rank, from lowest to highest, is as follows (though this may vary depending on where people live):<br />
<br />
# Jack<br />
# Queen<br />
# King<br />
# Ace<br />
<br />
Each player stands in a square, the Ace with the ball. The general gameplay is very similar to tennis - the Ace serves the ball to a person in another square by bouncing the ball in his own square once, then hitting the ball to another player. That player then hits the ball to another player, maintaining a steady pace of the game, and so on, until a player gets [[Four Square#Getting Out|out]]. The play is then over, and the ball is returned to the Ace to begin the next play.<br />
<br />
==Misconceptions==<br />
<br />
Four Square has become popular in many elementary schools and thus has built itself a reputation of a game it is not. Here are some common misconceptions that should be avoided when possible.<br />
<br />
===The Objective===<br />
<br />
Many players believe the objective of the game is to achieve the highest-ranked square. However, because Four Square is a cooperative game, such an objective would cause players to turn against each other and attempt to get each other out. In reality, Four-Square is a defensive game where the objective is simply to stay in the court as long as possible. Targeting other players and attempting to get people [[Four Square#Getting Out|out]] is mean-spirited, which CTYers most certainly are not.<br />
<br />
===Making Up Rules===<br />
<br />
In many variations of the game, the Ace is able to modify the rules of the game to his liking, "turning rules on or off." These extra rules, however, do nothing for the game except allow people to target each other and further disrupt the game's rhythm. This generally degrades the game rather than enhances it, but it is how many elementary schools play; Four Square is just like any other sport, though, where the rules cannot be modified. Players who enjoy modifying the rules of a game should play [[Mao]].<br />
<br />
==Rules==<br />
Four Square essentially has a very simple set of rules, but this article gets rather detailed in order to serve as a reference for advanced players.<br />
<br />
===Getting Out===<br />
<br />
Getting out is considered a penalty for a player disrupting the pace of the game for the others. There are 6 absolute ways of getting "out," which cannot be debated upon or reconsidered. These methods are listed below:<br />
<br />
# Double-Bounce - if the ball bounces once in the player's square, then a second time anywhere else without the player hitting the ball<br /><br />
# Double-Touch - if the player touches the ball twice in a row in the air (unless the Ace calls double-touches, which were very common in BRI)<br />
# Own Square - if the player hits the ball in his/her own square<br />
# Out - if the player hits the ball out of the court<br />
# Hold - if the player holds the ball<br />
# [[Four Square#Reaching and Volleying|Reaching/Volleying]] - if the player hits the ball without it first bouncing into his/her square<br />
<br />
When a player gets out, he/she moves to the Jack square, while the rest of the players move up to fill in the empty space created by the player getting out (i.e. Jack moves to Queen, Queen moves to King, King moves to Ace). If more than four players are playing the game, the player who gets out moves to the back of a line next to the court, while the person in the front of the line moves to Jack.<br />
*Keep in mind that all players are required to HIT the ball. Pushing, spinning, or throwing the ball is considered a hold.<br />
<br />
===The Line===<br />
<br />
When playing Four-Square, avoid thick lines at all costs, as they induce arguing amongst the players. The line is simply used to divide the court into four squares, and on the occasion that the ball hits the line in between two squares, players should continue playing as they normally would. If the player somehow hits the line on the outer perimeter of his/her own square, it is considered Own Square. If the ball hits the line, and then bounces out, the play is classified as a [[Four Square#Redos|Redo]].<br />
<br />
===Redos===<br />
<br />
A Redo is when the current play ends, but no player is legally out. In this case, all players maintain their normal positions and the ball is returned to the Ace to be served. Some reasons a Redo may occur are listed below:<br />
<br />
# If the ball hits the line, and then out, without any player contacting the ball<br />
# If the ball is served and goes out without any other player contacting the ball<br />
# If a player waiting in line or a person not in the game interferes with the game (called an Interference)<br />
# If a [[Four Square#Dead Ball|Dead Ball]] occurs in the form of "gradually dead"<br />
<br />
In most cases, Redos are called because no player can absolutely determine which player is out. Redos may not be used as an excuse to stay in; in other words, if a majority feels that a player is out, that player should not argue a Redo. Redos are used only if all players are unsure whether or not one is out.<br />
<br />
===Dead Ball===<br />
<br />
A "Dead Ball" is defined as a point of time in a round in which the ball is simply rolling on the ground rather than bouncing. There are two different types of Dead Balls that are treated differently when they occur, explained below:<br />
<br />
*Gradually Dead - The ball gets steadily lower throughout the round until it finally begins to roll.<br />
*Instantly Dead - The ball is high enough to hit normally but a player hits it such that it rolls.<br />
<br />
If a Dead Ball occurs in the form of Gradually Dead, it is no specific player's fault that the game was stopped, so it is considered a Redo as explained in the previous section. If a Dead Ball occurs in the form of Instantly Dead, the player who caused the Dead Ball is considered out, usually by Own Square.<br />
<br />
*Dead Balls are much less likely to occur when using a proper Four Square ball. Basketballs are usually the reason Dead Balls occur, as they are much heavier and bounce differently.<br />
<br />
===Reaching and Volleying===<br />
<br />
Suppose the ball bounces in the Jack's square but happens to pass the Queen's square first. After the ball bounces into the Queen's square, the Jack may instinctively reach into the Queen's square in order to try to hit the ball. Sometimes if the ball bounces in the Jack's square, for example, and is heading towards the Queen's square, the Queen tends to reach and hit the ball before the Jack is able to.<br />
<br />
These types of events are called Reaching. Reaching is usually unintentional, as it is instinctive to reach for and hit the ball. However, Reaching is a violation of the rules and is considered out. To avoid Reaching, players should try to hit the ball only after it bounces in his/her square.<br />
<br />
Similarly, Volleying is defined as one player hitting the ball, then a second player hitting the ball without the ball touching the ground at all. Once again, in this case, the volleying player is out.<br />
<br />
At BRI, it is commonly called hacking. Sometimes, hacking is allowed by the Ace. Hacking causes a lot of confusion.<br />
<br />
==Variations==<br />
<br />
===Soccer Four-Square===<br />
<br />
At BRI, RA Joe started Soccer Four-Square. As implied, a soccer ball is used. It is a mix of soccer and four-square in which players are not permitted to use their hands or arms. In soccer four-square, the ace can and will often call double touch, triple touch, or unlimited touches. This allows some players to stay in for much longer. "Dirty" serves were often called if a player puts their foot on top of the ball, but it is often played.<br />
<br />
This was also very popular at Easton 17.1.<br />
<br />
This same game was called No Hands, No Arms foursquare at LAN 19.1 and most of the same rules still apply except a normal foursquare ball is used and only two touches are allowed.<br />
<br />
===Nine Square===<br />
Initiated CAR 14.2 by RA Robel (?), this is four square but 9. Makes for a very interesting game, because the person in the middle can easily be squashed. One essential rule: if your body hits the ball, and then the ball does not go in another person's square, you are out. No other rules allowed. This was heavily played by *the male population of* Macro b. Memorable instances include Riley's hall bonding which took place during the last two activity periods (after having had some horrible bubble-tea) and during one of the dances when the game was joined by some wandering Micro students in front of KW building. Nine square is also popular at LMU due to the fact that the break area just outside of both Saint Robert's hall and the dining hall has a large cement tile floor where four- and nine-square is often played.<br />
<br />
===BEEG Foursquare===<br />
Beeg foursquare was a game played during LAN 19.1 where someone would use chalk to divide the brick square in the middle of Hartman Green into four sections, and normal foursquare rules applied except the squares were massive. Because of the limited access to Hartman Green during free time, the game was rarely ever played, with the notable exception of the one dance that was on Hartman Green. During this dance, a variation on the game was played where a team of two would be allowed to occupy one square and double touches were allowed in the sense that one partner was allowed to pass the ball to the other.<br />
<br />
==Four Square Gods==<br />
The Four Square God is a position held currently only at CTY LAN session 1. The position was first passed down in 2018 from Raymond Chang to Aaron Erlanger.<br />
* 18.1 - Raymond Chang<br />
* 19.1 - Aaron Erlanger<br />
* 20.1 -<br />
<br />
==Places where it's common==<br />
* Stanford (Baby CTY, defunct)<br />
* Chestertown<br />
* KW CAR<br />
* Lancaster<br />
* Mt.Holyoke (Baby CTY)<br />
* Bristol <br />
* Easton<br />
* Los Angeles<br />
* Seattle<br />
(Please add more )<br />
{{Things we like}}<br />
<br />
[[Category:Games]]</div>Burturthttps://www.realcty.org/index.php?title=User:Burturt&diff=50952User:Burturt2019-07-22T04:51:43Z<p>Burturt: Created page with "Hi! I'm a CTYer that's been around for a while (just finished my 3rd cty year, 5th overall including ys), and I don't know what else to say about myself."</p>
<hr />
<div>Hi! I'm a CTYer that's been around for a while (just finished my 3rd cty year, 5th overall including ys), and I don't know what else to say about myself.</div>Burturthttps://www.realcty.org/index.php?title=Advanced_Cryptology&diff=50951Advanced Cryptology2019-07-22T02:15:12Z<p>Burturt: 19.1 add sideshow</p>
<hr />
<div>{{Infobox<br />
| title = Advanced Cryptology<br />
| header1 = Math Course<br />
| label2 = Course Code | data2 = [[Advanced Crypytology|COD2]]<br />
| label3 = Year Opened | data3 = 2006-2015, 2017, 2019<br />
| label4 = Sites Offered | data4 = [[LAN]] <br />
| label 5 = Previously Offered | data 5 = [[PRN]]<br />
}}<br />
{{<br />
CTY Courses<br />
| image = [[Image:COD2.jpg|200px]]<br />
}}<br />
==Course Description==<br />
[https://cty.jhu.edu/summer/grades7-12/intensive/catalog/math.html#cod2 From the CTY Course Catalog] (2019):<br />
<br />
In today’s environment, data transmission and data security play an increasingly critical role in the global marketplace and in national security. Picking up where CTY’s Cryptology course leaves off, this class delves further into the rich mathematics behind the science of secret keeping.<br />
<br />
Students build upon key concepts covered in the first-level course and progress into the study of more complicated cipher techniques and additional topics from number theory. Students also examine how other areas of mathematics and computer programming are applied to cryptology. For example, they employ computational techniques to learn about statistical attacks on cryptosystems.<br />
<br />
In addition, students deepen their knowledge of historical cryptography systems. They develop a more nuanced understanding of the techniques used in breaking the Enigma devices used during World War II and investigate the inner workings of the M-209, a device of the same era that was used primarily by the United States military. Students leave this course with an advanced understanding of the mathematical basis and history of cryptology.<br />
<br />
As of 19.1, this course is offered every other year during first session at Lancaster. This course is relatively new, and thus the curriculum has varied. In 2011.2, the course contained a quick review of Crypto 1 material, followed by:<br />
* More public key cryptosystems such as Knapsack, McEliece, ElGamal, and Merkle Puzzle in addition to RSA<br />
* Probability, statistics, and applications to breaking monoalphabetic and Vigenere ciphers<br />
* Brief history of major cryptanalysts and mathematicians.<br />
* The US M-209 Cipher Machine<br />
* Integer factoring algorithms such as Fermat, Pollard Rho, Pollard P-1, and Quadratic Sieve as well as the Miller-Rabin Primality test<br />
* A brief introduction to Quantum Key Distribution, Continued Fractions, and Elliptic Curves<br />
* All necessary mathematics such as XOR systems, permutations, matrix algebra, and lots of modular arithmetic and number theory such as Fermat's theorem, discrete logarithms, and multiplicative inverses.<br />
<br />
Catalog descriptions follow:<br />
<br />
:'''From the CTY course catalog during the Princeton Days:'''<br />
<br />
In today’s environment, data transmission and data security play an ever critical role in the global marketplace and national security. This course focuses on code making and code breaking. By examining vulnerabilities of encryption systems and writing their own code, students learn the complexity of topics ranging from securely transmitting personal information during online business transactions to decoding secret communiqués that threaten our collective welfare.<br />
<br />
While Cryptology is mostly based around mechanical ciphers (Caesar wheel, Playfair grid) Advanced Cryptology focuses on computerized ciphers that have been in use within the past fifty years. The course is much more math-intensive than Cryptology, and more mathematical concepts are covered in order to facilitate the making and breaking of computerized codes. In addition to the Extended Euclidean Algorithm that was introduced in Cryptology, Advanced Cryptology utilizes methods of factorization and tests of the primality of numbers in order to break (or check the strength of) more difficult ciphers like the El Gamal or the McEliece ciphers. Students also write programs using Java to do a number of functions, ranging from solving a Caesar Shift cipher to converting temperature or even drawing a picture on the computer (as demonstrated by Weegee, LAN.10.1)<br />
<br />
:'''From the CTY course catalog of now:'''<br />
<br />
In today’s environment, data transmission and data security play an increasingly critical role in the global marketplace and in national security. Picking up where our Cryptology course leaves off, this class delves further into the rich mathematics behind the science of secret keeping.<br />
<br />
Students begin with a review of key concepts covered in the first-level course, then progress into the study of more complicated cipher techniques and additional topics from number theory. Students also examine how other areas of mathematics and computer programming are applied to cryptology. For example, they employ computational techniques to learn about statistical attacks on cryptosystems.<br />
<br />
In addition, students deepen their knowledge of historical cryptography systems. They develop a more nuanced understanding of the techniques used in breaking the Enigma devices used during World War II and investigate the inner workings of the M-209, a device of the same era that was used primarily by the United States military. Students leave this course with an advanced understanding of the mathematical basis and history of cryptology.<br />
<br />
==Class History==<br />
<br />
Originally started in [[Princeton]] on a trial, Advanced Cryptology has since moved to Lancaster, where Steven "Wizard" Earth<s>bourne</s> and David "Sideshow" Perry taught the first true offering of the course at LAN.10.1. One of the few CTY courses with two instructors, the twenty two students who took part formed the first ever COD2 class. Topics ranged from statistics to the M-209 machine, and there was a large Java programming element to the course.<br />
<br />
The course returned to Lancaster for both sessions in 2011. At LAN.11.1, a class of 8 students was again co-taught by Wizard and Sideshow. At LAN.11.2, a class of 14 students was taught by Wizard and TA'd by Steve "Ninja" Norum as Sideshow had to return to his work at the NSA. There was no Java programming and TI-83/84 calculator programs were handed out to perform tedious operations for students, though some students chose to write some programs themselves.<br />
<br />
In 12.1, COD2 was taught by Sideshow, and TA'd by Zydney, the awesomest TI-calculator wizard the world has ever seen. Programs for the TI calculators were made by Zydney for the class, as well as by those who wished to code their own programs. 2/3s of the way through the session, Zydney spent an ungodly amount of time and created an enigma emulator in TI-Basic. The class was in awe.<br />
<br />
Also in 12.1, a skit was performed every week in the class, much like in THEO.B, talking about a major mathematical principle relating to cryptography.<br />
<br />
Topics covered are described in the "course description" section of this page.<br />
<br />
Also about LAN.11.2 - QUANTUM MOIST (MOSIT) EBOLA RICKROLL NYAN COD IHAVEAQUESTION FRIDAY GAME M-209<br />
<br />
In LAN.19.1- Evil TA Kris had the best puns and destroyed the class' brains with his lesson on everything Quantum, alongside David "Sideshow" Perry as the instructor.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Courses]]<br />
[[Category:Princeton]]<br />
[[Category:Lancaster]]</div>Burturthttps://www.realcty.org/index.php?title=Advanced_Cryptology&diff=50950Advanced Cryptology2019-07-22T02:12:55Z<p>Burturt: Updated info on how often class is held</p>
<hr />
<div>{{Infobox<br />
| title = Advanced Cryptology<br />
| header1 = Math Course<br />
| label2 = Course Code | data2 = [[Advanced Crypytology|COD2]]<br />
| label3 = Year Opened | data3 = 2006-2015, 2017, 2019<br />
| label4 = Sites Offered | data4 = [[LAN]] <br />
| label 5 = Previously Offered | data 5 = [[PRN]]<br />
}}<br />
{{<br />
CTY Courses<br />
| image = [[Image:COD2.jpg|200px]]<br />
}}<br />
==Course Description==<br />
[https://cty.jhu.edu/summer/grades7-12/intensive/catalog/math.html#cod2 From the CTY Course Catalog] (2019):<br />
<br />
In today’s environment, data transmission and data security play an increasingly critical role in the global marketplace and in national security. Picking up where CTY’s Cryptology course leaves off, this class delves further into the rich mathematics behind the science of secret keeping.<br />
<br />
Students build upon key concepts covered in the first-level course and progress into the study of more complicated cipher techniques and additional topics from number theory. Students also examine how other areas of mathematics and computer programming are applied to cryptology. For example, they employ computational techniques to learn about statistical attacks on cryptosystems.<br />
<br />
In addition, students deepen their knowledge of historical cryptography systems. They develop a more nuanced understanding of the techniques used in breaking the Enigma devices used during World War II and investigate the inner workings of the M-209, a device of the same era that was used primarily by the United States military. Students leave this course with an advanced understanding of the mathematical basis and history of cryptology.<br />
<br />
As of 19.1, this course is offered every other year during first session at Lancaster. This course is relatively new, and thus the curriculum has varied. In 2011.2, the course contained a quick review of Crypto 1 material, followed by:<br />
* More public key cryptosystems such as Knapsack, McEliece, ElGamal, and Merkle Puzzle in addition to RSA<br />
* Probability, statistics, and applications to breaking monoalphabetic and Vigenere ciphers<br />
* Brief history of major cryptanalysts and mathematicians.<br />
* The US M-209 Cipher Machine<br />
* Integer factoring algorithms such as Fermat, Pollard Rho, Pollard P-1, and Quadratic Sieve as well as the Miller-Rabin Primality test<br />
* A brief introduction to Quantum Key Distribution, Continued Fractions, and Elliptic Curves<br />
* All necessary mathematics such as XOR systems, permutations, matrix algebra, and lots of modular arithmetic and number theory such as Fermat's theorem, discrete logarithms, and multiplicative inverses.<br />
<br />
Catalog descriptions follow:<br />
<br />
:'''From the CTY course catalog during the Princeton Days:'''<br />
<br />
In today’s environment, data transmission and data security play an ever critical role in the global marketplace and national security. This course focuses on code making and code breaking. By examining vulnerabilities of encryption systems and writing their own code, students learn the complexity of topics ranging from securely transmitting personal information during online business transactions to decoding secret communiqués that threaten our collective welfare.<br />
<br />
While Cryptology is mostly based around mechanical ciphers (Caesar wheel, Playfair grid) Advanced Cryptology focuses on computerized ciphers that have been in use within the past fifty years. The course is much more math-intensive than Cryptology, and more mathematical concepts are covered in order to facilitate the making and breaking of computerized codes. In addition to the Extended Euclidean Algorithm that was introduced in Cryptology, Advanced Cryptology utilizes methods of factorization and tests of the primality of numbers in order to break (or check the strength of) more difficult ciphers like the El Gamal or the McEliece ciphers. Students also write programs using Java to do a number of functions, ranging from solving a Caesar Shift cipher to converting temperature or even drawing a picture on the computer (as demonstrated by Weegee, LAN.10.1)<br />
<br />
:'''From the CTY course catalog of now:'''<br />
<br />
In today’s environment, data transmission and data security play an increasingly critical role in the global marketplace and in national security. Picking up where our Cryptology course leaves off, this class delves further into the rich mathematics behind the science of secret keeping.<br />
<br />
Students begin with a review of key concepts covered in the first-level course, then progress into the study of more complicated cipher techniques and additional topics from number theory. Students also examine how other areas of mathematics and computer programming are applied to cryptology. For example, they employ computational techniques to learn about statistical attacks on cryptosystems.<br />
<br />
In addition, students deepen their knowledge of historical cryptography systems. They develop a more nuanced understanding of the techniques used in breaking the Enigma devices used during World War II and investigate the inner workings of the M-209, a device of the same era that was used primarily by the United States military. Students leave this course with an advanced understanding of the mathematical basis and history of cryptology.<br />
<br />
==Class History==<br />
<br />
Originally started in [[Princeton]] on a trial, Advanced Cryptology has since moved to Lancaster, where Steven "Wizard" Earth<s>bourne</s> and David "Sideshow" Perry taught the first true offering of the course at LAN.10.1. One of the few CTY courses with two instructors, the twenty two students who took part formed the first ever COD2 class. Topics ranged from statistics to the M-209 machine, and there was a large Java programming element to the course.<br />
<br />
The course returned to Lancaster for both sessions in 2011. At LAN.11.1, a class of 8 students was again co-taught by Wizard and Sideshow. At LAN.11.2, a class of 14 students was taught by Wizard and TA'd by Steve "Ninja" Norum as Sideshow had to return to his work at the NSA. There was no Java programming and TI-83/84 calculator programs were handed out to perform tedious operations for students, though some students chose to write some programs themselves.<br />
<br />
In 12.1, COD2 was taught by Sideshow, and TA'd by Zydney, the awesomest TI-calculator wizard the world has ever seen. Programs for the TI calculators were made by Zydney for the class, as well as by those who wished to code their own programs. 2/3s of the way through the session, Zydney spent an ungodly amount of time and created an enigma emulator in TI-Basic. The class was in awe.<br />
<br />
Also in 12.1, a skit was performed every week in the class, much like in THEO.B, talking about a major mathematical principle relating to cryptography.<br />
<br />
Topics covered are described in the "course description" section of this page.<br />
<br />
Also about LAN.11.2 - QUANTUM MOIST (MOSIT) EBOLA RICKROLL NYAN COD IHAVEAQUESTION FRIDAY GAME M-209<br />
<br />
In LAN.19.1- Evil TA Kris had the best puns and destroyed the class' brains with his lesson on everything Quantum.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Courses]]<br />
[[Category:Princeton]]<br />
[[Category:Lancaster]]</div>Burturt